Change blindness is the phenomenon where humans are inept at detecting changes in stimuli when the change signal is masked or otherwise hidden from view. Inattentional blindness is the failure to detect objects or events that are unexpected while your attention is engaged in other aspects of a given task. The causes of both phenomena are also discussed, including Simons’ five different explanations for change blindness and Mack and Rock’s two classifications of inattentional blindness. The neural substrate for the existence of the altered percepts in change and inattentional blindness are discussed, with an emphasis on the frontal lobes of the brain and the executive control of attention. The implications of both change blindness and inattentional blindness in the field of human factors are examined, including applications in transportation and safety, medicine, military, and interface design. Finally, I envision the future study of change blindness and inattentional blindness in a cognitive neuroscience context.